groomer [ˈgruːmər] any of various officials of the royal household.
syntactic formula [sɪnˈtæktɪk ˈfɔːmjʊlə] синтаксическая структура словосочетания
syntactic patterns [sɪnˈtæktɪk pætnz] синтаксическая модель
intermediate unit [ɪntəˈmiːdjət ˈjuːnɪt] Промежуточное звено
initial [ɪˈnɪʃəl] изначальный
to be conveyed [kənˈveɪ] передаваться
the pattern of arrangement [əˈreɪnʤmənt] структура расположения
constituent [kənˈstɪtjʊənt] составляющее
To carry predication [predɪˈkeɪʃn] Несет в себе утверждение
dynamic force [daɪˈnæmɪk fɔːs] Действительное значение
subordinate [səˈbɔːdnɪt] второстепенный
coordinate [kəʊˈɔːdɪneɪt] сочинённый
endocentric [ˈendəʊ ˈsentrɪk] a construction in which the whole has the same syntactic function as the head
Exocentric [ˈeksə ˈsentrɪk] denoting or being a construction that has no explicit head
asyndetically Упущение союзов из конструкций, в которых они обычно будут использоваться
syndetically Связанный союзом
adjunct [ˈæʤʌŋkt] зависимое слово
Notional phrases Знаменательные слова
Equipollent groupings Равновесные группировки
Dominational connection Доминирующая связь

Lecture 11. Sentence.

The sentence has always been considered the main and the highest unit of speech. The sentence is the only unit of speech capable of expressing a communication (суждение) - a more or less complete idea or thought.

The three aspects (structural, semantic, functional) lay the foundation for sentence classifications, based correspondingly on sentence structure, sentence meaning and purpose of communication. As a formally organized unit, the sentence possesses structure, which is understood to be a constructive integration of words (noun groups, verb groups, adjective groups, adverb groups) occupying certain syntactic positions (of subject, predicate, object, attribute, adverbial modifier) connected syntagmatically with syntactic relations (predicative, subordinate and coordinate).

Every sentence has several main features:

- a certain imtonation structure (depends on the aim of the communication, this structure, grammatical type...);

- a certain grammatical structure (the division into members of the sentence and their arrangement);

- is certain communicative structure (the theme-rheme structure);

Every sentence is characterized by predication. Predication refers the utterance to reality. Formally predication is expressed through the categories of tense and mood: the temporal and the modal characteristics of the sentence are the most important ingredient parts of predication and the most important characteristic features of the sentence.

There are several classifications of sentences based on several different criteria:

1. The meaning of the sentence / the aim of thought expressed / the communicative task. According to this criterion the sentences are subdivided into:

- declarative - the aim is just to give information e.g. You can’t rely on him. He came up and greeted me.

- interrogative - to sick information. Interrogative sentences of such types of questions as general, special, alternative and disjunctive: e.g. Shall I start from the very beginning? Where do you come from? Have you got a job or do you study? He’s away, isn’t he?

- imperative (incentive) - to urge somebody to do something (commands, advice, request) e.g. Don’t touch it. Look out. You try and do it.

- exclamatory sentences - expressing various emotions: e.g. What a lovely day! How wonderful. How fast you are driving!

2.Each of the three communicative types (except exclamation) can be exclamatory and non-exclamatory (expressively charged and not).

3. Another classification is based on the number of predicative groups / subject predicate clusters. Here we find:

- composite - correlative (the more... the more), compound and complex sentences.

- simple. The connection between the parts maybe syndetic or asyndetic.

4. One more classification is based on the use of secondary members: (extended non -(un)- extended). Extended, having some other parts besides subject and predicate, or unextended, with the only positions of subject and predicate.

5. According to the completeness of the structure we distinguish between complete and in-/non-complete -elliptical sentences.

6. The number of the main members, their use and the meaning of a possible doer of the action from the point of view of use of the primary is the basis of division of the sentences into:

- two-member sentences;

- one-member sentences;

7. Commonly, a definite syntactic pattern corresponds to a semantic structure which leads to the semantic classification of the sentence done on the basis of the meaning conveyed by the subject and on the basis of the meaning conveyed by the predicate. In accordance with the first factor, sentences are divided into the groups:

- Personal human (definite or indefinite): e.g. Someone has stolen his bike. Everybody felt happy. She works in a bank. Nobody will give me a hand;

- Personal non-human (animate or inanimate): e.g. Winter has come. The river flows into the sea;

- Impersonal factual: e.g. It is snowing heavily. It is fine. It was getting dark;

- Impersonal perceptional: e.g. It seems interesting. It tastes awful.

Reflecting the semantics of the predicate, sentences fall into such types:

- Actional indicating physically developed processes: e.g. He is doing well at school. They get to school by car;

- Statal indicating the state of the process: e.g. I respect intelligent people. He did not sleep well at night;

- Relationalindicating social or personal relationships between people: e.g. He is her brother. They report directly to the supervising manager.

Created by the speaker in the course of communication out of units of language, words in particular, a contextually bound sentence is made up, playing the function of a complete unit of speech, intonationally delimited and aimed at a certain purpose of communication.

Sentence structure

Since English is an analytical language the prevailing type of sentence is a two-member sentence, however in English there are also one-member sentences:

1) The nominating sentences:

- substantive sentences (The main part of it is a noun) Spring. Rain.

- abjectival (the main member is the adjective) Fine. Splendid. Excellent.

2) Imperative sentences (the main member of the sentence is a verb in the imperative mood): Do it!

3) Infinitive sentences

- the infinitive without the particle "to" which builds a rhetorical question: Why no go there?

- The infinitive with "to" which is expressively charged in which the infinitive may be used in any forms depending on the type of the action: To think of it! To have done such a thing!

4) Gerundial sentences (the main member of the sentence is gerund; such sentences are not very numerous. They are expressively charged and are usually in the negative forms): No talking! No smoking!

5) Sentence-words: oh! Alas! (interjections); yes! no! (particles); of course! (modal words); theoretically there are at least two approaches to such structures:

- such structures are complete one-member sentences;

- these are elliptical/incomplete sentences which are shortened transformations of a certain complete deep structure, thus: Do it now! < You do it now! ; Fine! < It's fine!

Impersonal Sentences:

Sentences, describing phenomena of nature: It’s raining! It’s dark!

Sentences, expressing time, distance: It’s 2 o’clock! It was Monday! It’s a five minutes’ walk from here!

Sentences, expressing a certain state of things: It’s all over with him.

Russian impersonal sentences one-member sentences and very numerous, in English impersonal sentences are two-member sentences with the impersonal “ it” and they are not numerous.

The communicative structure of the sentence

The communicative structure of the sentence reflects the meaning of the communication with the sentence carries. A sentence contains two common parts: the theme ( the known, the given) and the rheme ( the new information). Usually a sentence is a theme-rheme structure, but it is possible to have a rheme sentence(fine!).

Communicative structure of the sentence refers to the way the speaker structures the information, the way he identifies the relative importance of utterance parts. Usually the utterance consists of 2 parts:
the topic of discussion: something about which a statement is made (theme = topic)
the new information, which adds most to the process of communication (rheme = comment).
Some sentences contain only the rheme, they are monorhematic: It is getting dark. In the majority of sentences the constituents are either rhematic or thematic. There are also transitional elements. Sentences containing the theme and the rheme are called dirhematic. Thematic elements are indicated by the definite article, loose parenthesis, detached parts of the sentence; rhematic elements - by the indefinite article, particles, negations, emphatic constructions. But in the majority of sentences the rheme is also placed at the end, which is achieved by changing the syntactic structure of the sentence.

The main ways of marking the new (rheme) are the following:

The usage of the indefinite, the zero article: a man came in.

Constructions: there is, there are ( to be….. - …. There came…)

Word order: then came the day of our meeting.

A 3-member passive with the by-phrase when it is the center of the communication: this was done by my mother.

The use of the reflexive pronouns in the emphatic function: he did it himself;

Particles of emphatic precision: he alone didn’t know anything about it;

The emphatic “it-construction” (double-emphasis”): it was he, who told me the truth.


Splitting the subject group: a power station is being built, which…

The usage a phrase instead of a verb: extensive use was made of…

Transformation of the members of the sentence: the recent years saw/witnessed…


Subdivided - разделённый

Declarative - утвердительное

Interrogative - вопросительное

Incentive - побудительное

Imperative - повелительное

Cluster - группа, блок

Correlative - соотносительный

Composite - составной, сложный

Doer - исполнитель

Prevailing - преобладающие, превалирующие

Gerundial - деепричастный

Split - делить, дробить.


What kind of sentence is this? (declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamatory)

1.Tyler is the best cook I know!

2.She has a huge collection of marbles.

3.Wow, that was a loud sneeze!

4.Maggie put a bandage on my cut.

5.That's the loudest siren I've ever heard!

6.Please, don't be upset.

7. May I have a second serving of dessert?

8. Nina is reading a magazine about skateboarding.

9. The boys picked apples in the orchard.

10. Be careful with that paintbrush!

11. Please cut up the watermelon.

12. Keep your eyes on the road!

13. Watch where you swing that baseball bat!

14. Please let me know how I can be of service.

15. She gave him a book last Sunday.